Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movementof people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal orbusiness/ professional purposes.These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists,residents or non- residents) and tourism has to do with their ac?vi?es, some of whichimply tourism expenditure. Product it is "anything that can be offered to a market for attention,acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. Itincludes physical objects, services, persons, places, organization, andideas
The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours, business and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic (within the traveller's own country) or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments.
Tourism numbers in 2000s recession
Tourism numbers declined as a result of a strong economic slowdown (the late-2000s recession) between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and in consequence of the outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, but slowly recovered until the COVID-19 pandemic put an abrupt end to the growth. The United Nations World Tourism Organization estimated that global international tourist arrivals might decrease by 58% to 78% in 2020, leading to a potential loss of US$0.9–1.2 trillion in international tourism receipts..
International Tourism Affected in 2020
Globally, international tourism receipts (the travel item in balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging source markets such as China, Russia, and Brazil had significantly increased their spending over the previous decade.
Global tourism 2020
Global tourism accounts for c. 8% of global greenhouse-gas emissions, as well as other significant environmental and social impacts that are not always beneficial to local communities and their economies. For this reason, many tourist development organizations are beginning to focus on sustainable tourism in order to mitigate negative effects caused by the growing impact of tourism. The United Nations World Tourism Organization emphasized these practices by promoting tourism as part of the Sustainable Development Goals, through programs like the International Year for Sustainable Tourism for Development in 2017, and programs like Tourism for SDGs focusing on how SDG 8, SDG 12 and SDG 14 implicate tourism in creating a sustainable economy.
In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months
In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
- Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country
- Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country
- Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:
- National Tourism: It is a combination of domestic and outbound tourism
- Regional Tourism: It is a combination of domestic and inbound tourism
- International Tourism: It is a combination of inbound and outbound tourism
Other groupings derived from the above grouping:
The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is often used as a sign of distinction. The sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relationsç